CBD Science

Here you will find summaries and links to the most current science and research related to CBD.

Cannabidiol Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Promotes the Host Innate Immune Response

Summary: Cannabidiol from the cannabis plant has potential to prevent and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection.

CBD and its metabolite, 7-OH-CBD, but not congeneric cannabinoids, potently block SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells. CBD acts after cellular infection, inhibiting viral gene expression and reversing many effects of SARS-CoV-2 on host gene transcription. CBD induces interferon expression and up-regulates its antiviral signaling pathway. A cohort of human patients previously taking CBD had significantly lower SARSCoV-2 infection incidence of up to an order of magnitude relative to matched pairs or the general population. 

Link: Click here to view the original source.

Citation: Elms, L., Shannon, S., Hughes, S., & Lewis, N. (2019). Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.),25(4), 392–397. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0437

Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series

Summary:  Administration of oral CBD in addition to routine psychiatric care was associated with PTSD symptom reduction in adults with PTSD. CBD also appeared to offer relief in a subset of patients who reported frequent nightmares as a symptom of their PTSD. Additional clinical investigation, including double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, would be necessary to further substantiate the response to CBD that was observed in this study.

Link: Click here to view the original source.

Citation: Elms, L., Shannon, S., Hughes, S., & Lewis, N. (2019). Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.),25(4), 392–397. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0437

Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

Summary: Preclinical evidence conclusively demonstrates CBD’s efficacy in reducing anxiety behaviors relevant to multiple disorders, including PTSD, GAD, PD, OCD, and SAD, with a notable lack of anxiogenic effects. CBD’s anxiolytic actions appear to depend upon CB1Rs and 5-HT1ARs in several brain regions; however, investigation of additional receptor actions may reveal further mechanisms. Human experimental findings support preclinical findings, and also suggest a lack of anxiogenic effects, minimal sedative effects, and an excellent safety profile. Current preclinical and human findings mostly involve acute CBD dosing in healthy subjects, so further studies are required to establish whether chronic dosing of CBD has similar effects in relevant clinical populations. Overall, this review emphasizes the potential value and need for further study of CBD in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

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Citation: Blessing, E. M., Steenkamp, M. M., Manzanares, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2015). Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics12(4), 825–836. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1

Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials

Summary:  Studies included in this review evaluated mainly oral administration of purified CBD with placebo group as a comparator. However, there was larger heterogeneity between studies with regard to the population, schemes and doses of CBD, outcomes and tool of measurement.

There is some evidence,even though low quality, that supports anxiolytic effect of acute administration of oral CBD. There is moderate-quality evidence that chronic and acute administration of CBD can improve psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Further, large RCTs are needed to confirm the effect of CBD for the treatment of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, dyslipidemia and cannabis use disorders.Insufficient data regarding safety issues were provided, but most studies reported no AEs with acute administration and mild to moderate adverse effects with chronic administration.

Link:  Click here to view the original source.

Citation:  Larsen, C., & Shahinas, J. (2020). Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials. Journal Of Clinical Medicine Research, 12(3), 129-141.

An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies

Summary:  In general, the often described favorable safety profile of CBD in humans was confirmed and extended by the reviewed research. The majority of studies were performed for treatment of epilepsy and psychotic disorders. Here, the most commonly reported side effects were tiredness, diarrhea, and changes of appetite/weight. In comparison with other drugs, used for the treatment of these medical conditions, CBD has a better side effect profile. This could improve patients’ compliance and adherence to treatment. CBD is often used as adjunct therapy. Therefore, more clinical research is warranted on CBD action on hepatic enzymes, drug transporters, and interactions with other drugs and to see if this mainly leads to positive or negative effects, for example, reducing the needed clobazam doses in epilepsy and therefore clobazam’s side effects.

Link: Click here to view the original source.

Citation: Kerstin Iffland and Franjo Grotenhermen.Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.Dec 2017.139-154.

Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series

Summary:  The final sample consisted of 72 adults presenting with primary concerns of anxiety (n = 47) or poor sleep (n = 25). Anxiety scores decreased within the first month in 57 patients (79.2%) and remained decreased during the study duration. Sleep scores improved within the first month in 48 patients (66.7%) but fluctuated over time. In this chart review, CBD was well tolerated in all but 3 patients.

Link:  Click here to view the original source.  

Citation: Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: A large case series. Perm J 2019;23:18-041. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041

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